1. Give appropriate answer as directed:1x12=12
a)“Education is the manifestation of perfection already in man.” Who said this?
Ans:- Swami Vivekananda.
Ans:- Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
c)Extrovertism is the characteristic of infancy period. [Write True orFalse]
Ans:- In 1956.
e)Education has no relation to Biology. [Write True orFalse]
f)Write the full form of NCERT.
Ans:- The National Council of Educational Research and Training.
g)Johann Herbartis considered as the father of Educational psychology. [Fill in the blank]
Ans:- Lancasterian system.
i)Name the famous educationist who laid stress on the training of sense organ for child education.
j)Who claimed for compulsory primary education during the British rule in India?
Ans:- Gopal Krishna Gokhle.
k)Emotion is an agitated state of mind. [WriteTrueor False]
l)Mention one limitation of computer.
Ans:- Computers are very expensive.
g)Mention two differences between sensation and perception.
Ans:-Two differences between sensation and perception:-
whereas our sensory receptors are perpetuallygathering data from the atmosphere, it's ultimately however we have a tendencyto interpret that data that affects however we have a tendency to move with theplanet.
Perception refers to the approach sensorydata is organized, taken and consciously practised. the belief involves eachbottom-up and top-down process.
What is the point of feeling something?Sensory receptors are specific neurons that respond to specific types ofstimuli. When sensory information is detected by a sensory receptor, thesensation has occurred. For example, the light entering the eye causes chemicalchanges in cells that reflect the line behind the eye.
These cells send messagesto the central nervous system as action potentials (as you learned whilestudying biopsychology). The conversion of sensory stimuli from energy to actis known as transduction.
h)Write two functions of SCERT.
Ans:- The mainfunctions of SCERT are:
(i) To conduct survey and educational research at the state level.
(ii) Publish text books.
i)Write two main features of Gandhiji’s basic education.
Ans:- The mainfeatures of basic education are:-
(i) Free and compulsory education in two stages from 6 to 14 yearsof age - a junior phase consisting of the first five years and a senior phasecovering the remaining three years.
(ii) The medium of instruction is mother tongue.
j)Write two provisions of Article 45 of the Indian Constitution.
Ans:- Twoprovisions of Article 45 of the Constitution of India: -
(i) To provide free and compulsory education to children between theages of 6 to 14 and for this purpose, a law will be introduced in Parliamentafter the enactment of the Constitution (Ninety-ninth Amendment) Bill, 2001.
(ii) Article 5 of the Constitution provides that the State shallendeavor to provide early childhood care and education to children below theage of six years.
k)What do you mean by conception?
Ans:- Conception is the last stage of the knowledge process.Knowledge of a particular thing is completed when it comes to our mind from theconcept of something. It is a name given to a class of objects based on theircommon properties. It is defined as the classification of stimuli, which hasthe common feature.
l)Mention two merits of habit.
Ans:- Two meritsof habit:-
(i) Becoming agood habit is a boon as it makes the life of a person simpler and better.
(ii) In the longrun, good habits give us very little stress and tension which can bringstability and security in one's life.
3.Answer the following questions: 4x10=40
a)What do you mean by vocational aim of education?
Ans:- In thepresent society, the most important objective of education is business purpose.In today's world, earning one's livelihood is considered the most honorableexperience of one's life. Parents expect their children to earn a respectableincome for being educated, this makes them self-sufficient in life and as aresult develops self satisfaction, mental and moral strength and confidence.The commercial purpose of education makes education a purposeful activity. Ithelps in developing various interests and thoughts and feelings in the minds ofyoung students. The business objective again helps to put a person in the rightbusiness and develops the right approach to work. This objective enhances aperson's industrial capacity without which he becomes a parasite in society.
b)Mention four characteristics of adolescence period.
Ans:- Fourcharacteristics of adolescence period:-
(i) The period of acute physical / biological changesis also a psychological rebound: Pelvic bonegrowth, breast to resolution, increased size and genital sensitivity, pubic andaxillary hair growth, deepening of voice in girls, pimples and menarches arethe main physical and biological developments that confuse and provoke them.
(ii) Metaphor: Duringadolescence, both the girl and the boy become very conscious of their presence.As physical changes are occurring very rapidly, this affects the appearance ofteenagers, "How do I look?" The reason for his concern. A teenagerdoes all they can to develop and maintain an attractive appearance. Veryspecial about someone's dress, hairstyle, etc.
(iii) Attraction is opposite of sex:Heinous changes in the girl, and in the boy, feel a strong attraction to eachother. Physical development during adolescence makes it attractive to theopposite sex. Nevertheless, this gives rise to the problem of adaptability forsame-sex peers and people of the opposite sex.
(iv) Cognitive development: Adolescence is the stage when a person attains maturity in physicaldevelopment, in relation to sexual behavior, and cognitively. Eleven yearslater, Jean Piaget considers this to be a phase of formal operation, when thegrowing adolescent begins to think logically and consistently.
c)Briefly write about four major functions of spinal cord.
Ans: - There are four major functions of the spine: -
(i) Electricalcommunication: Electrical currents move up and downthe spinal cord, sending signals that allow different sections of the body tocommunicate with the brain.
(ii) Walking: When a person walks, a collection of muscle groups in the legsconstantly shrinks. The action of taking it step by step may seem incrediblysimple to us as we have been doing it throughout our lives, but there areactually a lot of factors that have to be properly coordinated to achieve thismomentum.
(iii) Reflexis: Reflexes are involuntary reactions caused by stimuli associatedwith the spinal cord, spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system of thebrain.
(d) It connects a large part of the peripheral nervous system to the brain. Informationreaching the spinal cord (nerve impulse) is transmitted to the brain viasensory neurons.
d)Mention four differences between instinct and reflex action.
Ans:- Differencesbetween instinct and reflex action:-
Reflexes are stimulus-driven behavior. They cannot be comfortable.They must have something in the outside world that triggers them. They areusually fairly simple behaviors that do not last long.
Stimulation is not necessary only because of stimulation. They maybe responsible for spontaneous behavior, and may be more complex behaviors thatlast longer.
e)Mention four challenges before the teachers in the context of newsocial background.
Ans:- Four challenges facing teachers in the context of new socialbackground: -
(i) A teacher treats students from all sections of the society andthey have to behave on an equal footing and appropriate case is given.
(ii) The teacher should adopt a democratic, secular and socialistattitude towards life.
(iii) They always have to familiarize themselves with new conceptslike personal guidance, microteaching, programmed learning, DSconsters etc.
(iv) Explosion of knowledge occurring in all walks of life and allsubjects. This makes the promotional work more challenging.
f)Briefly discuss the role of parents and teachers in habit formation.
Ans:- It is difficult to give up the exercises that a person does inhis early life time. Children are clear about the consequences of habits duringan early age. Later, it becomes part of his personality and is difficult towithdraw. Good habits provide benefits because bad habits eliminate badoutcomes.
The period of adolescence is the most sensitive age period. Duringthis immature period, it is easy to adopt any habit, good or bad. Children aremore attracted to bad thoughts and then good habits. Therefore, theyinadvertently acquire habits for their own pleasure and later suffer.
For example, the young person usually adopts a smoking habit fromhis or her peer group. He does this exercise to show people whether he isstrong man or mature. Unaware of the fact that smoking is harmful to health. Ata later age, this addiction can adversely cause lung cancer and other lung-relatedcomplications. There was later a serious health condition showing activityduring earlier eras.
g)Write four characteristics of Sarva Siksha Abhijan.
Ans:- Four features of 'Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan':-
(i) Program with a clear time frame for universal elementaryeducation. ...
(ii) Response to the demand for quality basic education throughoutthe country.
(iii) Opportunity to promote social justice through basic.
(iv) An expression of political will for universal primary educationacross the country.
h)Mention four merits of co curricular activities in a school.
Ans:- Four qualities of co-curricular activities in a school: -
(i) They help in removing the monotony created by the traditionalsyllabus and can motivate the students to study better.
(ii) They help in developing mental-physical health and hygiene ofchildren and develop their manual and motor skills.
(iii) They help in the development of mental alertness, intellectualcuriosity and problem solving ability of the students.
(iv) They provide the freedom and spontaneity of self-expression andself-power necessary for good education.
i)Give the concept of child psychology and developmental psychology astwo important branches of psychology.
Ans:- Two important branches of psychology: -
(i) Child Psychology: Childhood extends from 2 to 12 years. This is an important periodin life. Future life depends on development during childhood. Growth anddevelopment will be rapid during this phase. Child psychology deals with theseaspects.
(ii) DevelopmentalPsychology: This branch of psychology deals withdevelopment throughout life span from childhood to adulthood. The scientificstudy of human development attempts to understand and explain how and whypeople change throughout life. It covers all aspects of human developmentincluding physical, emotional, intellectual, social, perceptual and personalitydevelopment.
j)Mention four major problems of adolescence period.
Ans:- Four major problems of adolescence: -
(i) Sex problem
(ii) Identity crisis problem
(iii) emotional problem
(iv) social problem
4.What do you mean by social aim of education? Mention three points ofdifferences between social and individual aim of education. 3+3=6
Ans:- John Dewey, philosopher has putforward a broad objective of education which is known as socialist purpose.According to this socialist theory, the claims of a society are always abovethe claims of the individual members who make up the society. Therefore, everyscheme of education should strive to prepare individuals living a social life.In fact school should be "small society" and everything taught inschool should have social impact. Education is indeed a strong instrument ofsocial change.
Three points of difference between social and personal purpose of education:-
(i) Basis: The individual objective ofeducation is based on the biological heredity of man.
(ii) Shakti or Freedom: The personalobjective of education provides complete freedom to the individual.
Whereas the socialpurpose of education gives full independence and power to the state.
(iii) Faith: The personal objective ofeducation considers social development as a sub-genus for personal development.
5.What is curriculum? Highlight four needs of curriculum. 2+4=6
Ans:- The course is a standards-basedsequence of planned experiences where students practice and gain proficiency inmaterials and practical learning skills. The curriculum is the central guidefor all teachers to teach and learn, so that every student has access torigorous educational experiences. The structure, organization, and ideas in acurriculum are created to facilitate student learning and learning.
Four needs of curriculum:-
(i) Curriculumdevelopment is a purposeful activity.
(ii) It is done to designor redesign for the achievement of some specific educational objectives.
(iii) The curriculum isthe heart of the student's college / school experience.
(iv) The syllabus shouldbe regularly reviewed and revised so that it is able to meet the changing needsof both students and society.
6. Who appointed HunterCommission? Write five major recommendations of Hunter Commission for thedevelopment of primary education in India. 1+5=6
Ans:- Lord Ripon appointed the first Indian Education Commission on3 February 1882. Sir William Hunter (Member of the Viceroy's Executive Council)was appointed Chairman of the Commission.
Fivemajor recommendations of the Hunter Commission for the development of primaryeducation in India: -
(i) Primary educationshould be considered as a directive of the public. It should be closely linkedto the practical aspect of public life.
(ii) Primary educationshould be imparted through mother tongue.
(B) Legislation and administration:
(i) Control of primaryeducation should be entrusted to the District and Municipal Boards.
(ii) The local boardshould deal with the entire system for primary education in relation tofinance, management, expansion and inspection of primary education in thespecial education sector.
(C) Promoting indigenous schools:
(i) Indigenous schoolsneed incentives for their improvement. Efforts should be made to encouragethese schools.
(ii) The Commission heldthe view that districts and municipal boards in India would have more sympathyfor indigenous schools than the Department of Education and recommended thatthey should be entrusted with the task of assisting indigenous schools.
(D) School Administration:
(i) School houses andfurniture should be simple.
(ii) Managers should befree to choose a text book for their schools.
(E) Training of teachers:
(i) Normal schools shouldbe established for the training of teachers of primary schools.
(ii) There should be atleast one general school in each division.
Writea short note on the contribution of Christian Missionaries towards thedevelopment of education and literature in Assam.
Ans:- According to the Treaty of Yandaboin 1826, Assam came under the rule of East India Company. The Sarpamoro trioreached Assam and established a center in Guwahati in 1829. The AmericanBaptist Mission Foreign Society sent a mission to Assam under the ReverendsNathan Brown and Oliver Cutter. He brought with him a privatization press andsettled in India.
Another noted missionaryMick Bronson also came to India. He established several schools and publishedtext books for school children. But due to skepticism from the locals, Bronsonshifted the center from Jaipur to Upper Assam. The first Baptist churches were establishedin Guwahati and Nagaon and Sibagar in the mid-19th century. He said that toconvert and teach people to Christianity. When the missionaries did not succeedin moving to the hilly region to spread their activities, the Nagaonmissionaries established an orphanage, schools and hospitals.
In 1841, the clothPresbyten missionary came to Khasi Jaintia Hill. He established several schoolsfor boys and girls. He also increased his activities in Garo Hills, LushaiHills, Nagaland, Darang and Nagaon District. Then in the last quarter of the19th century, Roman Catholics arrived and established centers in Shillong,Guwahati and Haflong.
7. What is educationalpsychology? Briefly write about the scope of educational psychology. 1+5=6
Ans:- Educational psychology is a branch of psychology and it dealswith the application of general psychological principles to the problem ofeducation. It is the study of the behavior of individuals in response to aneducational environment.
Scopeof Educational Psychology:-
(i)Individual difference:- It is due to psychologicaldiscovery that in education we pay more attention to the problem of personaldifference in children.
(ii)Rates of personal development:- Psychology helps inidentifying individual rates of progress in education and progress accordingly.
(iii)Types of learning:- We learn in different ways. Itis therefore necessary that the teacher is familiar with the types of learningformed by psychology.
(iv)Design and Measurement of Intelligence:-Psychology's most important contribution to education is that it is a valuableconclusion about the nature and measurement of intelligence.
(v)Vritti and education:- It is psychology in which itis said that education has an intimate relationship with vritti and phenomena.